Psyschology Study On Drinking

.. study variables. Conceptually variables may be grouped into one of five categories: weekly drinking (variable 1), perceived stress (variable 2), family history of alcoholism (variable 3), coping variables (Variables 4-7), and expectancy variables (variables 8-21). Examining the pattern of correlations between these variables suggests several conclusions. First, family history of alcoholism was neither significantly correlated with perceived stress nor with weekly drinking, suggesting that family history of alcoholism is not important in stress-induced drinking.

Second, several coping variables were significantly correlated with either weekly drinking and/or perceived stress. Specifically, drinking to cope was significantly positively correlated with both weekly drinking (r = .420) and perceived stress (r = .310), less useful coping was significantly positively correlated (r = .674) with stress, and problem focused coping was significantly negatively correlated (r = -.327) with weekly drinking. These findings suggest that coping variables play an important role in stress-related drinking. Finally, only one expectancy variable, the valence expectancy for cognitive and behavioral impairment, was significantly correlated (r = .340) with weekly drinking, but not with perceived stress. However, several expectancy variables were significantly positively correlated (.357 < r < .517) with drinking to cope.

These findings suggest that expectancies are more likely be a distal, rather than a proximal predictor of stress- related drinking. Estimating the Model Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to test the model depicted in Figure 1. Table 2 contains summary statistics for the stepwise regression used to identify the predictor variables of weekly drinking. As can be seen from Table 2, gender emerged as the most important predictor variable accounting for over 28% of the variance. The coping variables of drinking to cope and problem-focused drinking were also significant, and accounted for an additional 12% and 8% of the variance, respectively.

Further multiple regression analyses were used to determine which variables predicted drinking to cope, and problem-focused coping, respectively. Table 3 shows that the expectancy for risk accounted for over 26% of the variance in predicting drinking to cope, with the expectancy for tension and perceived stress accounting for an additional 16%. Table 4 shows that emotion-focused coping accounted for over 34% of the variance in predicting problem-focused drinking, with the expectancy valence for self perception accounting for an additional 8%. Figure 2 summarizes the direct effects estimated in the foregoing series of multiple regression analyses. Table 1. Zero-Order Correlations Among Relevant Study Variables Measure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. Weekly Drinking — -.143 -.072 -.327* -.232 -.206 .420** .016 .240 2.

Perceived Stress — .001 .198 .138 .674** .310* -.069 -.074 3. Family History of Alcoholism — -.186 -.111 -.002 -.211 -.003 -.128 4. Problem-Focused Coping — .491** .170 -.044 -.132 -.112 5. Emotion-Focused Coping — .166 .062 .111 .107 6. Less Useful Coping — .223 -.073 -.017 7.

Drinking to Cope — .234 .412** Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes 8. Sociability — .262 9. Tension Reduction — 10. Liquid Courage 11. Sexuality 12. Cognitive & Behavioral Impairment 13. Risk & Aggression 14.

Self Perception Alcohol Expectancy Valence 15. Sociability 16. Tension Reduction 17. Liquid Courage 18. Sexuality 19. Cognitive & Behavioral Impairment 20.

Risk & Aggression 21. Self Perception * p < .01; ** p < .001 Table 1. (Continued) Zero-Order Correlations Among Relevant Study Variables Measure 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. Weekly Drinking .116 -.008 -.141 .173 -.037 -.083 .185 -.062 .194 2. Perceived Stress -.041 -.069 .133 .213 .039 .044 .196 .058 -.038 3. Family History of Alcoholism -.052 .018 -.082 -.121 .069 .040 .089 .028 .007 4. Problem-Focused Coping .035 .012 .175 .141 .218 -.097 -.075 .052 -.035 5.

Emotion-Focused Coping .044 .295* .218 .154 .151 -.230 -.084 -.053 -.055 6. Less Useful Coping -.178 -.006 .238 .066 .059 .016 .096 -.025 .072 7. Drinking to Cope .371* .225 -.017 .517** -.009 .066 .357* .115 .178 Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes 8. Sociability .697** .488** -.120 .433** -.160 .569** .469** .174 .289 9. Tension Reduction .233 .263 .041 .180 .006 .202 .282 .132 .222 10.

Liquid Courage — .509** .032 .622** .046 .433** .436** .381* .245 11. Sexuality — .260 .522** .276 .118 .161 -.025 .149 12. Cognitive & Behavioral Impairment — .221 .354* -.227 -.241 -.171 -.061 13. Risk & Aggression — .236 .158 .304* .106 -.001 14. Self Perception — -.335* -.175 -.089 -.247 Alcohol Expectancy Valence 15. Sociability — .510** .499**.490** 16. Tension Reduction — .412**.409** 17.

Liquid Courage — .541** 18. Sexuality — 19. Cognitive & Behavioral Impairment 20. Risk & Aggression 21. Self Perception * p < .01; ** p < .001 Table 1. (Continued) Zero-Order Correlations Among Relevant Study Variables Measure 19 20 21 1. Weekly Drinking .340* .026 .197 2.

Perceived Stress -.164 .065 -.139 3. Family History of Alcoholism -.229 .045 .009 4. Problem-Focused Coping -.289 -.053 -.357* 5. Emotion-focused Coping -.122 -.123 -.135 6. Less Useful Coping -.262 -.054 -.322 7. Drinking to Cope .119 .166 -.054 Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes 8.

Sociability .141 .170 .135 9. Tension Reduction .196 .166 .015 10. Liquid Courage .123 .278 .138 11. Sexuality -.271 -.152 -.160 12. Cognitive & Behavioral Impairment -.396** -.217 -.097 13.

Risk & Aggression -.038 -.019 -.138 14. Self Perception -.363* -.274 -.220 Alcohol Expectancy Valence 15. Sociability .249 .482** .113 16. Tension Reduction .150 .227 -.131 17. Liquid Courage .375* .717** .219 18.

Sexuality .162 .515** .181 19. Cognitive & Behavioral Impairment — .544** .539** 20. Risk & Aggression — .517** 21. Self Perception — * p < .01; ** p .